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教你快速撸一个免费HTTPS证书

摘要: 最受欢迎的免费HTTPS证书,了解一下?



HTTPS已成为业界标准,这篇博客将教你申请Let’s Encrypt的免费HTTPS证书。

本文的操作是在Ubuntu 16.04下进行,使用nginx作为Web服务器。

1. 安装Certbot

Certbot可以用于管理(申请、更新、配置、撤销和删除等)Let’s Encrypt证书。这里安装的是带nginx插件的certbot:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:certbot/certbot
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install -y python-certbot-nginx

2. 配置Nginx

vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/fundebug.conf

此时还没有HTTPS证书,因此域名只能使用80端口而非443端口,网站只能通过http协议而非https协议访问:http://www.fundebug.com

server
{
listen 80;
server_name www.fundebug.com;
}

重启nginx:

systemctl restart nginx

3. 配置DNS

使域名www.fundebug.com指向nginx所在服务器的IP:



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4. 申请证书

使用certbot命令为www.fundebug.com申请HTTPS证书。–nginx选项表示Web服务器为nginx,-d选项指定域名,-n选项表示非交互式运行命令。若去除-n选项,则终端会提醒你选择是否将http请求重定向为https请求。

certbot --nginx -d www.fundebug.com -n

证书申请成功之后,会看到以下信息。Let’s Encrypt证书的有效期只有3个月,但是Certbot会通过Cron和systemd timer自动更新证书,证书的时效性不用担心。

IMPORTANT NOTES:
- Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
/etc/letsencrypt/live/www.fundebug.com/fullchain.pem
Your key file has been saved at:
/etc/letsencrypt/live/www.fundebug.com/privkey.pem
Your cert will expire on 2018-09-29. To obtain a new or tweaked
version of this certificate in the future, simply run certbot again
with the "certonly" option. To non-interactively renew *all* of
your certificates, run "certbot renew"
- If you like Certbot, please consider supporting our work by:

Donating to ISRG / Let's Encrypt: https://letsencrypt.org/donate
Donating to EFF: https://eff.org/donate-le

HTTPS证书相关的文件在/etc/letsencrypt/目录中:

find /etc/letsencrypt/ -name "*www.fundebug.com*"
/etc/letsencrypt/renewal/www.fundebug.com.conf
/etc/letsencrypt/archive/www.fundebug.com
/etc/letsencrypt/live/www.fundebug.com

certbot会自动修改nginx配置文件:

cat /etc/nginx/conf.d/fundebug.conf

nginx监听了443端口并配置了HTTPS证书,这时我们可以通过HTTPS协议访问了!https://www.fundebug.com

server
{
listen 80;
server_name www.fundebug.com;

listen 443 ssl; # managed by Certbot
ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.fundebug.com/fullchain.pem; # managed by Certbot
ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/www.fundebug.com/privkey.pem; # managed by Certbot
include /etc/letsencrypt/options-ssl-nginx.conf; # managed by Certbot
ssl_dhparam /etc/letsencrypt/ssl-dhparams.pem; # managed by Certbot
}

参考

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